Maternal Knowledge towards Childhood Immunization and Reasons for Incomplete Immunization in Peri-Urban Area of Yangon Region: Implications for Health Policy


In Myanmar, there are still inequalities and gaps in service provision of immunization for children among per-urban, slum and migratory population.

Since rural-urban migration mostly takes place in the peri-urban area of Yangon Region especially in Hlaing Thar Yar Township and the parents are working as daily labors and factory workers, providing complete dose of immunization for the children becomes a challenge.



To assess the knowledge of mothers regarding childhood immunization

To determine the immunization status of 18-24 month-old children

To identify the reasons for incomplete immunization

To find out the association between the knowledge of mothers and the immunization status of children



Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Study Area: 7 wards and 2 villages of Hlaing Thar Yar Township, Yangon Region

Study Population: 298 mothers of 18-24 month-old children

Study Period: May to September 2018

Data Collection: Face-to-Face interview using semi-structured questionnaire

Data Analysis: Descriptive analysis with SPSS v.23


Discussion and Conclusion

Knowledge of mothers regarding childhood immunization is extremely low in the peri-urban community especially in the areas of immunization schedule, vaccine preventable diseases and number of doses needed for each vaccine.

Proportion of children who did not complete immunization is high, and the immunization coverages are

below the national targets and previous studies of Myanmar and other countries.

Tight working schedule of parents, migration and sickness of children are the major barriers for incomplete immunization.

Children whose mothers had higher knowledge on childhood immunization, were more likely to receive complete dose of immunization.



Establish strategies ensuring equitable access to immunization among peri-urban community targeting to factory workers and mobile migrant population.

Strengthen health literacy promotion on childhood immunization by health care providers using innovation approaches to raise the awareness of peri-urban community.

Emphasize or educate community on importance of immunization card through accelerated health literacy promotion activities.

Conduct further operation researches for identifying the service delivery gaps in childhood immunization and assessing the factors determining missed opportunity for vaccination.